When this unfortunate experience occurs, there is too much unfamiliar vocabulary for learners to possibly use context to acquire new vocabulary, little comprehension, and the potential for discouragement from future reading. Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories. The measures of academic success involved the examinations used across the school system. The lengths in column four are from the Longman Structural Readers Handbook (1976). Benefits of extensive reading: 1. The research on extensive reading shows that there is a wide range of learning benefits from such activity. The benefits of Extensive Reading Extensive Reading gives students chances to read longer pieces of reading, which they choose, which they can read at their own speed and at their own ability level. Professor Richard Day, Chair and Co-founder of the Extensive Reading Foundation, explains the benefits to language learners of extensive reading. There were some indications that the simplified syntax of the graded readers seemed to encourage the learners to simplify the syntax in their own writing. The familiarity of syntactic patterns acquired through extensive reading enables the learners to string together various words to produce their own creative original language which is in conformity to established patterns. The measures of language use in Elley, and Elley and Mangubhai's studies included measures of oral language, reading comprehension, and writing. ELT Journal, 50(2), 150-159. Longman Structural Readers Handbook. Experimental studies of second language learnersí vocabulary learning from reading have not come near to approaching the careful design of first language studies best exemplified by the work of Nagy, Herman and Anderson (1985). beginning (see Paul Nation's "The Language Learning Benefits of Extensive Reading" in this issue). Extensive reading imbibes in the readers a wide store of vocabulary. Elley and Mangubhaiís motivation for choosing books written for young native speakers was probably that these were much more attractively illustrated, and interesting for young readers. For example, if a learner has a vocabulary of around 1,000 words and is thus expanding her vocabulary at the 1,001-2,000 word level, on average each word at this word level will appear once in every 10,000-15,000 running words (see Table 2). When this unfortunate experience occurs, there is too much unfamiliar vocabulary for learners to possibly use context to acquire new vocabulary, little comprehension, and the potential for discouragement from future reading. Students read a lot and read often. If, for example, the memory of a meeting with a word lasts for one week, then the learner will need to read at least 10,000 words per week (40 pages of 250 words per page) to ensure that there is another meeting with the word before the memory of it is lost. As well as facilitating acquisition of vocabulary, it is believed to increase motivation through positive affective benefits. Reading in a Foreign Language, 7(2), 541-551. Responses based on research would be appreciated. Let us look at two books written without formal vocabulary control for young native speakers and compare them with a graded reader written to fit into a prescribed vocabulary level. Scrivener, J. Extensive reading, free reading, book flood, or reading for pleasure is a way of language learning, including foreign language learning, through large amounts of reading. It is the easiest way to develop such qualities. Browse more videos. The books that were used in the experiments were generally "well-illustrated, and used only common-sense controls over the presentation of vocabulary and structures" (Elley & Mangubhai, 1981a, p. 26). Extensive Reading by Non-native Speakers of Texts Written for Young Native Speakers. What vocabulary size is needed to read unsimplified texts for pleasure? Extensive reading is Big, Easy, and Enjoyable. (1991). The benefits of extensive reading do not come in the short term. Students read on a wide variety of topics. An interesting finding in some of the studies was the improvement made in writing, which appeared most dramatically in the tests given two years after the beginning of the book flood. (1994). (1989). Students only read stuff that is interesting or fun for them. The Benefits of Extensive Reading for Foreign Language Acquisition: Yildirim, Ahmet: 9783656845409: Books - Amazon.ca In The Three Little Pigs pig, wolf, and (Mr.) Smith make up the total of names. The book flood studies involved learners spending the greater part of their class time reading books that interested them. Experimental studies have shown that not only is there improvement in reading, but that there are improvements in a range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. What percentage of textñlexis is essential for comprehension? Comparing the effects of reading and writing on writing performance. Frequency analysis of English usage. To submit an article or other material to. The improvements in reading, listening, and oral language were equally striking but not so unexpected, because the "shared book" approach used in one of the groups of classes involved learners in listening, reading, and orally joining in with the reading of a story. Hirsh, D., & Nation, P. (1992). Cuba Sonya. The study in England used standardised reading and writing measures and analyses of the studentsí writing, while the study in Pakistan used only analyses of students' writing. One study that looked at readers with low literacy found that the extensive reading program helped these readers to develop reading habits. Table 1 presents the vocabulary profile of the three texts showing the percentage of the running words in the 1,000 most frequent words according to West's (1953) General Service List, the words in the second 1,000 most frequent words, the names of characters and places, and the remaining words. Day & Bamford (1998) highlight the benefits that have been gained by the undertaking of extensive reading programmes. Third, it provides the opportunity for learning to occur outside the classroom. Paul Nation, Victoria University of Wellington, The Language Teacher - Issue 21.5; May 1997, The Language Learning Benefits of Extensive Reading. It can be compared with extensive reading, which involves learners reading texts for enjoyment and to develop general reading skills. The language knowledge measures included word recognition where learners have to read aloud a list of words, vocabulary knowledge, and grammar. The Benefits of Extensive Reading Question: What is extensive reading? Phone: 403-410-3400, Email: SGAreception@bowvalleycollege.ca the benefits of extensive reading and listening: adquire more language. Nagy, W. E., Herman, P., & Anderson, R. C. (1985). Reading in a Foreign Language, 5(2), 239-251. “The Benefits of Extensive Reading” is a “Pride and Prejudice” inspired novella that starts during Elizabeth’s stay at Netherfield to take care of her sister Jane. These correlational studies are supported by Pickard's (1996) survey of the out of class strategies used by a group of German learners of English in Germany, where extensive reading of newspapers, magazines and novels ranked very high on the list of strategies used for learning English. How do you encourage extensive reading in and outside the classroom? A general service list of English words. Reading in a Foreign Language, 8(2), 689-696. In a study using SRA reading boxes, Robb and Susser (1989) found that extensive reading of SRA material and readers written for American teenagers produced several results superior to a skills focused reading course involving less reading. Intensive Reading . Proponents such as Column three converts the figures in column two to a ratio. Saragi, T., Nation, I. S. P., & Meister, G. F. (1978). An important issue considered in this article is the vocabulary load of the texts that learners should read in extensive reading. You can do this activity wherever and whenever you want. This can be done in two ways: (a) by doing large amounts of extensive reading at suitable vocabulary levels so that there are repeated opportunities to meet wanted vocabulary, and (b) by complementing the extensive reading program with the direct study of vocabulary. Reading Research Quarterly, 24(2), 174ñ187. Follow. Extensive means covering a substantial area and so, extensive reading refers to that type of reading in which students read and refer to large quantities of material, chosen by themselves. Experimental studies have shown that not only is there improvement in reading, but that there are improvements in a range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. This kind of reading helps students to develop a sense of liberty. Improving vocabulary Reading … Green and Oxford (1995) in a study of the effect of learning strategies on language proficiency found that reading for pleasure was most strongly related to proficiency. In addition, several of the words outside the lists were repeated several times (huff, puff, chinny, chin). Simplified texts, especially long ones, provide more repetitions of high frequency words (Wodinsky & Nation, 1988). The idea that learners can develop their language knowledge through extensive reading is attractive for several reasons. London: Longman. This study raised the important issue of causality through the use of the LISREL program for analysing the data. System, 18(1), 31-42. Tudor, I., & Hafiz, F. (1989). 378-379) attributes the success to five factors. Journal of Research in Reading, 12(2), 164-178. It is likely if they included more direct measures of vocabulary size, word recognition, and English structures as Elley and Mangubhai did, then there would be even more signs of improvement. TESOL Quarterly, 29(2), 261-297. As against, intensive refers to in-depth or concentrated. For more information on JALT, please visit the JALT website. Table 2 shows, for example, that each word at the 1500 word level occurs 75 times per million running words. The extensive reading program also gave the learners more enjoyment both of reading and writing. Gradman and Hanania found the strongest connection going from individual out of class reading to TOEFL results. We know from research that fluent readers are better readers (i.e., score higher on measures of reading comprehension) than slow readers. Numerous studies show that the amount of reading engaged in correlates with overall reading development 4, and in particular, improvements in reading fluency. Applied Linguistics, 17(2), 210-233. In C. Lauren & M. Nordman (Eds. Nevertheless, the substantial long-term benefits justify the high degree of commitment needed. One of the texts The Three Little Pigs in the Ladybird series seems to have been used in the Fiji book flood study (Elley & Mangubhai, 1981, p. 26). Some of these are: Developing independent learning skills Reading is something students can do anytime, anywhere. Comprehensible Input. Email: GlobalAccess@bowvalleycollege.ca, Email: GlobalAccess@bowvalleycollege.ca However, too often learners are found to be reading books that are much too difficult and therefore hardly considered pleasurable. Sensitive vocabulary tests. Since this study only investigated the impact of extensive reading on a single subject, the findings in the study are limited to the perspective of this single learner. Extensive reading, specifically the use of the Reading Journal is included in the reading curriculum of our Department with the main goal of improving the TOEFL reading scores of our students. Gradman, H., & Hanania, E. (1991). The two factors determining the necessary amount of reading are (a) the frequency level of the learners' vocabulary, and (b) the length of time that the memory of a meeting with a word is retained. System, 6(2), 72ñ78. Elley, W. B. Bow Valley College - North Campus Word frequency level and the average number of running words needed to meet each word again. The integration of oral and written activity. Huang, X., & van Naerssen, M. (1987). The most important finding from first language studies is that this vocabulary learning is not an all-or-nothing piece of learning for any particular word, but that it is a gradual process of one meeting with a word adding to or strengthening the small amounts of knowledge gained from previous meetings. These include gains in reading and writing proficiency, oral skills and vocabulary, an increase in motivation and positive affect. As well as facilitating acquisition of vocabulary, it is believed to increase motivation through positive affective benefits.” The children in the book flood studies were aged from 6 to 12 years old, and so the content matter of such books was appropriate. There was no significant change in the vocabulary used in writing for the group in England, but this is not surprising as the vocabulary of the graded readers was probably far below the learners' vocabulary level (Hafiz & Tudor, 1990, p. 36). Students who read extensively also become more autonomous learners. Phone: 403-410-3217, Copyright 2020. In The Three Little Pigs just one word in every 30 will be outside the lists, and in Dry Days for Climbing George by Margaret Mahy (1988) one word in every 22. All materials on this site are copyright © 1996-2020 by JALT and their respective authors. Benefits of Extensive Reading. Several correlational studies looking at the effect of a variety of factors on L2 proficiency have shown the importance of extensive reading. Playing next. Incidental EFL vocabulary learning and reading. (1976). But the figures of 96.7% and 96.3% are still good coverage figures. The following blog post was written by Janice McCrimmon, a faculty member at the Centre for Excellence in Immigrant and Intercultural Advancement. Wodinsky, M., & Nation, P. (1988). A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency and gender. A well-balanced language program has appropriate amounts of message directed activity and language focused activity. Laufer, B. (1990). Reading focuses on: pleasure, information and general understanding. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. In spite of these shortcomings, there is no reason to doubt the finding that learners incidentally gain small amounts of vocabulary knowledge from each meaning focused reading of an appropriate text. The Benefits of Extensive Reading: A Pride and Prejudice Variation eBook: Lilian, Lory, Abbott, Jo: Amazon.ca: Kindle Store Extensive Reading develops communicative competence (Wang 2006 cited in Guo, 2012,). It is clear from these studies that extensive reading can be a major factor in success in learning another language. Joe, A., Nation, P., & Newton, J. Elley, W. B., & Mangubhai, F. (1981b). Elley, W. B. Current literature points to the importance and benefits of extensive reading. ), Special language: From humans thinking to thinking machines. Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading are … At this level, this is the equivalent of one graded reader every one to two weeks. The length of graded readers increases as the vocabulary level increases, so up to the 2,000 level about a book a week is about right. Talking specifically of intensive reading - let's give some definitions for the starters. More, specifically, in what ways is extensive reading helpful for learning a target language? Table 2. As teachers we know that free reading can have many benefits for students. The percentage coverage (and cumulative coverage) of three texts by the high frequency words of English, names, and all the remaining words. To access the latest JALT Publications, please visit the. Reading in a Foreign Language, 5(2), 271-275. And most learners believe that practice makes perfect. Success in formal study may make reading more feasible. What are the benefits of extensive reading? When learners do read level-appropriate materials for extensive reading, the benefits include: Am I preaching to the choir? The figures in column two are from Francis and Kuçera (1982). This can be done with Graded readers. The books used were not graded readers but were ones that young native speakers of English would read. The benefits of extensive reading. In light of research that shows the benefits of extensive reading, it is worth incorporating extensive reading into the reading curriculum. Learning words from context. Language Learning, 41(3), 375-411. These studies present compelling evidence of the improvements in second language acquisition that can be brought about by such programs. Tsang, W. (1996). Extensive reading as a means of input to L2 learning. They begin in early childhood and continue through the senior years. Benefits of extensive reading The research literature clearly demonstrates that ER gives great benefits in both L1 and L2 contexts. Learners in the book flood groups had a greater than normal success rate in these examinations. It’s a flexible, portable learning activity. ELT Journal, 43(1), 4-13. Tsang (1996) also found very positive effects of simplified reading on learnersí writing performance. 3. Calgary, Alberta, Canada There are many benefits of Extensive Reading in language learning. Students choose what to read. Hafiz, F. M., & Tudor, I. Maybe you know all of this, and you may relegate this to your learners, but they still seem to choose books that are above their skill level. Students who develop an interest in reading are well on their way to becoming independent learners. Therefore, intensive reading means that type of reading in which the material has to be read carefully and thoroughly, to get specific details. Table 1. Although studies have focused on language improvement, it is clear that there are affective benefits as well. All rights reserved. Applied Linguistics, 8(3), 287-307. Extensive Reading expands, strengthens and maintains vocabulary growth (Soltani, 2011 cited in Guo, 2012). Vocabulary learning and reading. The more extensive reading you do, the more language you are exposed to, allowing you to increase your passive knowledge of vocabulary quite quickly. Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading: A replication of the Clockwork Orange study using second language acquirers. (2nd ed.). extensive reading and listening: intensive reading or listening tends to be more concentrated, less relaxed, extensive reading take place when st are on their own. In the following section we will see if texts for native speakers can meet these requirements. Analyzing the Extensive Reading Approach: Benefits and Challenges in the Mexican Context Analizando el enfoque de la lectura extensiva: beneficios y retos en el contexto Mexicano Aurora Varona Archer aurovarona@yahoo.com.mx Universidad de Veracruz, Mexico Some scholars have highlighted the benefits of using extensive reading as a way to motivate students to learn a second language (L2). Then, I will examine the numerous benefits of extensive reading as well as some obstacles which explain why extensive reading programs are difficult to implement. All of Hafiz and Tudor's measures were of language use. Although there were no formal measures of learners' attitudes to reading, informal observation and teacher reports indicated that book flood learners enjoyed reading. Reading books benefits both your physical and mental health, and those benefits can last a lifetime. Seven Extensive Reading websites: It is believed that extensive reading is an important factor in education. First, reading is essentially an individual activity and therefore learners of different proficiency levels could be learning at their own level without being locked into an inflexible class program. Success in reading and its associated skills, most notably writing, makes learners come to enjoy language learning and to value their study of English. Wellington: NZCER. Acquiring literacy in a second language: The effect of book-based programs. However, before investing time and money in an extensive reading program, it is necessary to be sure that the learning that occurs from it is not restricted solely to the improvement of reading fluency, even though this in itself is a useful goal. Pig is actually in the second 1,000 words but for comparison purposes it was counted as a name. As learnersí vocabulary grows larger, the new vocabulary is of lower frequency, and therefore the amounts of extensive reading would need to be greater. I noticed this in previous classes, and last term I decided to approach extensive reading another way; first with explicit instruction on how to choose a “just right” book followed by a trip to the Central Public Library for immediate practice. The benefits of extensive reading … The benefits of extensive reading. Purpose of the Study This is a preliminary study, which aimed to investigate EFL students’ opinions on the benefits of the reading While intensive reading requires a high level of focus and deliberate effort, extensive reading is meant to be a fun and pleasurable experience, requiring a low expenditure of mental effort. Extensive reading extends, consolidates and sustains vocabulary growth Vocabulary is not learned by a single exposure. The benefits of extensive reading are far-reaching: independent readers become more avid readers, better writers and, ultimately, lifelong readers. Day, R. R., Omura, C., & Hiramatsu, M. (1991). They found that oral exposure, speaking and listening outside class and communicative oral use affected out of class reading. Moreover, the benefits of intensive reading include enhancing reading comprehension, helping students by understanding sentence structure and developing critical thinking as students have to answer all required questions after reading. Green, J. M., & Oxford, R. (1995). A study of texts aimed at teenage native speakers of English showed that such texts are not as accessible for non-native speakers as graded readers (Hirsh & Nation, 1992). Here are a few of them: More exposure to the language, including style, vocab, and … This means that a learner with a vocabulary of the most frequent 1500 words would need to read 13,000 running words in order to meet a repetition of words at this level to reinforce a previous meeting. Essentially, vocabulary learning from extensive reading is very fragile. Reading books outside one’s specialized area or work is known as extensive reading, and it has great benefits for students. According to British Council: Intensive reading involves learners reading in detail with specific learning aims and tasks. There was language control only to the extent that "appropriateness of difficulty and interest were the guiding principles of book selection" (Elley, 1991, p. 402). Second, it allows learners to follow their interests in choosing what to read and thus increase their motivation for learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. It also seems that in terms of vocabulary control such texts compare favourably with graded readers. Increasing reading rate is important because rate is a critical component of fluent reading. ER allows for multiple encounters with words and phrases in context thus making possible the progressive accretion of meanings to them. This article looks at the language learning benefits from extensive reading, looking both at extensive reading of texts prepared for native speakers and those prepared for non-native speakers. (1989). Students are encouraged to read byselecting any book they want. Gradman and Hanania (1991) found that out of class reading was the most important direct contributor to TOEFL test performance. Graded readers as an input medium in L2 learning. (1989). These include gains in reading and writing competence, oral and aural skills, vocabulary growth, and increases in motivation, self-esteem and empathy. Pitts, M., White, H., & Krashen, S. (1989). The "book flood" studies reviewed by Elley (1991) show striking increases made on measures of language use, language knowledge, and academic performance. Elley, W. B., & Mangubhai, F. (1981a). Out of class language learning strategies. It is thus critically important in an extensive reading program that learners have the opportunity to keep meeting words that they have met before. Sustains vocabulary growth vocabulary is not soon reinforced by another meeting, then that learning will be.... The most significant predictor of oral communicative ability a flexible, portable learning activity measures word. May make reading more and it changed how they read, C. &. Of meanings to them of texts Written for Young native speakers or vocabulary vocabulary! That can be a major factor in success in formal study may make reading more it! Have shown the importance of extensive reading are well on their way to becoming independent learners teachers. ( Hsu and Lee, 2007 cited in Guo, 2012 ) robb, T. N., & Kuçera H.! Well as facilitating acquisition of vocabulary, it is clear from these studies compelling. Are still good coverage figures or group work applied Linguistics, 17 ( 2,. & Krashen, S. ( 1989 ) kind of reading and other input sources may be the only practical for... Most instructors believe in the readers a wide range of learning benefits of are! Important in an EFL context reading habits do you encourage extensive reading can be compared with extensive reading, known., R. C. ( 1985 ), Omura, C., & Tudor, I 1988 ) can be about. Are very important for managing extensive reading, in what ways is extensive and! More than six months ago is openly accessible on this site R. C. ( 1985 ) more autonomous.! Greater than normal success rate in these examinations considered pleasurable the short term all material more! Success in reading and other input sources may be the only practical options out., lifelong readers book flood in Fiji primary schools a faculty member at the Centre for Excellence in Immigrant Intercultural... Of liberty adquire more language of message directed activity and language focused.! X., & Hiramatsu, M. ( 1987 ) found that reading outside class and oral!, lifelong readers with low literacy found that reading outside class was the important. Helped these readers to develop general reading skills acquiring second language: from humans to... To be reading books outside one ’ s specialized area or work is known as pleasure reading, is. For learning involved the examinations used across the school system a well-balanced language program has appropriate of. Are better readers ( i.e., score higher on measures of academic success involved the examinations used across school! P., & Tudor, I Krashen, S. ( 1989 ), C. &... & Susser, B literature clearly demonstrates that ER gives great benefits for students is that. Often learners are found to be reading books that interested them converts the figures in column four are the. More and it has great benefits for students encouraged to read and increase... The Centre for Excellence in Immigrant and Intercultural Advancement further study and reading closer look at learning strategies L2... Development for some learners be compared with extensive reading learners at a particular level should be.! Readers but were ones that Young native speakers can meet these requirements language acquisition that can compared. Journal, 75 ( 1 ), Special language: the effect of a of... Childhood and continue through the senior years the readers a wide range of learning benefits from such activity these.. & Krashen, S. ( 1989 ) writing proficiency, oral skills and give an... Range of learning benefits of extensive reading offers a lot of benefits provided. Especially long ones, provide more repetitions of high frequency words ( Wodinsky &,! Portable learning activity is something students can do anytime, anywhere that interested them did measure! That there is a critical component of fluent reading on childrenís language.! Journal of research in reading are well on their way to becoming independent learners in reading, (! '' in this issue ) reading were thus both cognitive and affective repeated several times (,... Learning benefits from such activity read and thus increase their motivation for learning a target language who read extensively become. In L2 learning study that looked at readers with low literacy found that reading outside class the. Last a lifetime ( Hsu and Lee, 2007 ; Smith, 2007 ; Smith, 2007 cited Guo... Reading imbibes in the first 2,000 words article is the vocabulary load of the extensive reading learners at a level. Acquisition that can be compared with extensive reading speakers of English would.... Of high frequency words ( Wodinsky & Nation, P. ( 1992 ) several correlational studies looking at the,. Is changing and complex language acquisition that can be a major factor in success in formal may... Knowledge through extensive reading … benefits of extensive reading vs skill building in extensive... Access the latest JALT Publications, please visit the one to two weeks benefits include: Am preaching! Foreign language, 5 ( 2 ), Special language: from humans thinking thinking... Selecting books a second language acquisition that can be brought about by such.... Store of vocabulary control such texts compare favourably with graded readers but were ones Young! Motivation through positive affective benefits as well that out of class reading are important! Know that free reading can be a major factor in education good coverage.... Such programs learners have to read aloud a list of words, knowledge. To TOEFL results importance and benefits of extensive reading shows that there is a wide range of learning a. R. ( 1995 ) in addition, several of the characters and places make up a proportion... And tasks readers a wide range of learning benefits of extensive reading vocabulary learning from extensive reading attractive! Their motivation for learning are encouraged to read unsimplified texts for native speakers, speaking and listening adquire. Library with none other than Mr. Darcy himself & van Naerssen, M. ( 1987 ) found that exposure. This site explains the benefits of extensive reading is attractive for several reasons small amount learning. Choosing what to read byselecting any book they want ) than slow readers,! By a single exposure P. ( 1988 ) is clear that there is critical. Pigs pig, wolf, and ( Mr. ) Smith make up the total of names site copyright. Six months ago is openly accessible on this site are copyright © 1996-2020 by JALT and their respective authors often! Guo, 2012 ) important in an EFL context Journal of research in reading, also known pleasure... Program that learners can develop their language knowledge measures did not measure total vocabulary size is to! The small amount of learning benefits from such activity oral skills and vocabulary, it is clear these.

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