Underside of Coffea arabica leaves infected with coffee leaf rust. This $10 billion industry is not harmless because there are many environmental and ecological problems that result from coffee production.1 For every cup of coffee consumed, it is almost certain that one square inch of rainforest was destroyed.2 Chemical buildup in soils and loss of forest shade are consequences of mass coffee production. A consequence of intensification is the decline in biodiversity, whereas a coffee landscape managed with a diverse shade cover that mimics a natural forest will harbor birds and other wildlife. The wet process is more time, resource, and labor intensive. Deforestation is a significant issue facing our world as the population increases, and with it, the demand for more farmland to feed billions of people. The FAO World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) Coffea Germplasm Report (2009–2011) is the most comprehensive inventory of coffee germplasm held in living collections. In the coming decades, climate change will have a huge impact on coffee production, especially C. arabica, which is a climate-sensitive species. The key to this lies in utilizing the varied coffee genetic resources in order to develop varieties with drought stress tolerances and pest and disease resistances. "I owe the bank, but look at my crop — I have no way to pay.". Hence, breeding for varieties resistant to coffee leaf rust has been one of the highest priorities in many countries (Prakash et al., 2004). The best soils for coffee growing include alluvial and colluvial soils with texture, as in volcanic formations, and good drainage. All these factors threaten livelihoods in many coffee-growing countries. This could have a dramatic impact on the communities that depend on coffee production. Flat areas allow for mechanization. The top ten countries account for about 81% of total imports, with the United States importing almost a quarter of the total imports, followed by Germany at 18%. Coffee berries infested by coffee berry borer with visible entry holes. ... better correlation of agricultural practices and potential environmental impacts of coffee. In the coffee industry, sustainability has become a hot topic. Coffea arabica is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) that originated from two different diploid (2n = 2x = 22) wild ancestors, C. canephora and C. eugenioides S. Moore or ecotypes related to these two species (Lashermes et al., 1999). During the period between 1965 and 1989, the coffee market was regulated, with relatively high price levels, because upward and downward trends were corrected through the implementation of export quotas. In 2016, weather factors – especially low rainfall – significantly impaired coffee production in Brazil, which impacted businesses and challenged Nestlé and its agricultural producers to seek solutions to improve quality and productivity. Due to increasing population pressures and accompanying deforestation and land degradation, natural forest ecosystems housing high levels of biodiversity are under serious threat in the centers of origin of various Coffea spp. Once coffee berries are harvested, they are processed by one of two methods: the wet method or the dry method. The leaf rust results in loss of physiological activity, which causes the leaves to fall. Like any commodity trade, the coffee trade has been characterized by boom and bust cycles since the 1880s, mainly due to an imbalance of supply and demand. The coffee industry isn’t the worst industry for the environment (as long as consumers use reusable cups and mugs). 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